Pelicans are a genus of large water birds that make up the family Pelecanidae. They are characterised by a long beak and a large throat pouch used for catching prey and draining water from the scooped-up contents before swallowing.
They have predominantly pale plumage, the exceptions being the brown and Peruvian pelicans. The bills, pouches, and bare facial skin of all species become brightly coloured before the breeding season.
The eight living pelican species have a patchy global distribution, ranging latitudinally from the tropics to the temperate zonethough they are absent from interior South America and from polar regions and the open ocean.
Long thought to be related to frigatebirdscormorantstropicbirdsand gannets and boobiespelicans instead are now known to be most closely related to the shoebill and hamerkopand are placed in the order Pelecaniformes.
Ibisesspoonbillsheronsand bitterns have been classified in the same order. Pelicans frequent inland and coastal waters, where they feed principally on fish, catching them at or near the water surface. They are gregarious birds, travelling in flocks, hunting cooperativelyand breeding colonially.
Four white-plumaged species tend to nest on the ground, and four brown or grey-plumaged species nest mainly in trees. The birds have been persecuted because of their perceived competition with commercial and recreational fishing.
They also have a long history of cultural significance in mythologyand in Christian and heraldic iconography. The genus Pelecanus was first formally described by Carl Linnaeus in his landmark 10th edition of Systema Naturae. He described the distinguishing characteristics as a straight bill hooked at the tip, linear nostrils, a bare face, and fully webbed feet.
This early definition included frigatebirds, cormorants, and sulidsas well as pelicans. Tropicbirdsdarterscormorants, gannets, boobies, and frigatebirds, all traditional members of the order, have since been reclassified: tropicbirds into their own order, Phaethontiformesand the remainder into the Suliformes.
In their place, herons, ibises, spoonbills, the hamerkop, and the shoebill have now been transferred into the Pelecaniformes. Ibises and spoonbills Threskiornithidae. Cladogram based on Hackett et al. The eight living pelican species were traditionally divided into two groups, one containing four ground-nesters with mainly white adult plumage AustralianDalmatiangreat whiteand American white pelicansand one containing four grey- or brown-plumaged species which nest preferentially either in trees pink-backedspot-billed and brown pelicansor on sea rocks Peruvian pelican.
The largely marine brown and Peruvian pelicans, formerly considered conspecific are sometimes separated from the others by placement in the subgenus Leptopelicanus  but in fact species with both sorts of appearance and nesting behavior are found in either.
DNA sequencing of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes yielded quite different relationships; the three New World pelicans formed one lineage, with the American white pelican sister to the two brown pelicans, and the five Old World species the other.
The Dalmatian, pink-backed, and spot-billed were all closely related to one another, while the Australian white pelican was their next-closest relative. The great white pelican also belonged to this lineage, but was the first to diverge from the common ancestor of the other four species.
This finding suggests that pelicans evolved in the Old World and spread into the Americas, and that preference for tree- or ground-nesting is more related to size than genetics. Fossil finds from North America have been meagre compared with Europe, which has a richer fossil record. Pelicans are very large birds with very long bills characterised by a downcurved hook at the end of the upper mandible, and the attachment of a huge gular pouch to the lower.
The slender rami of the lower bill and the flexible tongue muscles form the pouch into a basket for catching fish, and sometimes rainwater,  though not to hinder the swallowing of large fish, the tongue itself is tiny. Although they are among the heaviest of flying birds,  they are relatively light for their apparent bulk because of air pockets in the skeleton and beneath the skin, enabling them to float high in the water. The wings are long and broad, suitably shaped for soaring and gliding flight, and have the unusually large number of 30 to 35 secondary flight feathers.
Males are generally larger than females and have longer bills. The Australian pelican's bill may grow up to 0.
Pelicans have mainly light-coloured plumage, the exceptions being the brown and Peruvian pelicans. The American white pelican grows a prominent knob on its bill that is shed once females have laid eggs. Anatomical dissections of two brown pelicans in showed that pelicans have a network of subcutaneous air sacs under their skin situated across the ventral surface including the throat, breast, and undersides of the wings, as well as having air sacs in their bones.
Modern pelicans are found on all continents except Antarctica. Pelicans swim well with their strong legs and their webbed feet. They rub the backs of their heads on their preen glands to pick up an oily secretion, which they transfer to their plumage to waterproof it. A fibrous layer deep in the breast muscles can hold the wings rigidly horizontal for gliding and soaring.New Circa. New Reading.
New Writing. New Men's. New Women's. New Tech. New Travel. New Collections. New Arrivals. Circa Notebooks. Circa Refills. Circa Special Request. Circa Accessories. Circa Kits. Collections - Circa. About Circa.
Bookends and Bookstands. Reading Accessories. Fountain Pens. Rollerball Pens. Ballpoint Pens.His birth, family, activities outside of Pelikan, and death are all questions that I have been unable to answer despite extensive research. Much of what we do know seems to be based upon a strong oral history as well as a scant trail of patents and corporate agreements.
While I have previously dedicated time to the fruits of Mr. Not just an incremental improvement, Mr. I thought that it might be enlightening, particularly for the more engineering minded amongst us, to peek behind the curtain and see what makes a Pelikan tick, at least as it did back in the early days. The designs that follow are derived from the original patents filed by Mr.
Of course, there have been some small improvements to the piston design over the past nine decades, but the fundamentals remain the same. We know that Mr. Shortly after the hostilities ended, he sought his fortune by setting out to improve upon the prevailing fountain pen designs of the time.
Safety pens dominated the post war period but were not without their shortcomings. Looking to turn his intellectual property into income, he would come to license one of his patents to Edmund and Mavro Moster, of the Moster Penkala Werke AG company based in Zagreb, Croatia almost immediately after his initial filing.
To his dismay, the full scale production of a pen based off that patent never materialized, likely a consequence of financial issues faced by the Moster company. The lack of production and subsequent sales had the effect of depriving Mr. Unable to derive any meaningful revenue from his work, he sought to annul the contract, something that the Moster company at first refused. Litigation or at least the threat of such resulted in the Moster company agreeing to limit Mr. The altered agreement now allowed Mr.
Figures are nearly identical to the corresponding German patent. It does not appear that he was ever an employee of the company but rather served in the role of an independent contractor. To accomplish this, he would hire a model builder and an industrial designer.Pelikan
While I could not independently confirm, he may have been one of Mr. With a working prototype in hand, a new contract was signed which extended the time period of the first by an additional four months. During this time, Pelikan would continue to explore other potential intellectual properties to bring to market.
Because of prior contractual agreements with the Moster Penkala company, Pelikan would have to pay royalties for the use of the patent in the areas outlined above an arrangement that ended in May of ByPelikan had re-patented the product under its own name and brought Mr. By virtue of its filing a year after the original, it seems to be a bit more fleshed out than the German submission.
Similar versions can be found filed in other countries as well. The patents reference a threaded piston filling system that facilitates the filling of a pen while reducing the risk of ink splatter.
The differential created by using threads of different pitch would allow for an easy and efficient means of filling a fountain pen. Figure 1 depicts a longitudinal view of the barrel where the steep-pitched female element of the screw drive is secured to the threaded low-pitch knob while the stem element serves as the rod of the plunger.
Figure 2 is a cross section of Figure 1 at the point indicated. Figure 3 is another longitudinal view of a slightly different design where the stem portion of the steep-pitched screw drive is secured to the threaded low-pitch knob while the female element serves as a hollow piston rod. Figure 4 is a cross section of Figure 3 at the point indicated. Figure 5 is a longitudinal view showing the piston filling mechanism in action. This was not present on the German patent filed one year earlier.
Figure 5 was not present on the original German patent. It is another longitudinal view showing the piston filling mechanism in action. The description indicates that the pen is held at the intermediate section and knob. The knob is then turned to the left which advances the piston forward as seen in the figure. The nib is then immersed into ink and the knob is turned to the right thereby drawing ink into the barrel.I decided to come here specifically because I read many good reviews about the place, the beers and the atmosphere.
It seems to enter another era. My parents and I had some homemade french fries in addition to the beers and it was a perfect They also sell gluten-free beers! To try! Cheers : More. This is an institution for authentic Swedish cuisine. Not fancy, almost like Stockholm's version of an old British pub, but much larger in scale. Must experience for a pre-Christmas dinner with friends. I tried both the Swedish meatballs and the reindeer steak here.
Both dishes were pretty good, but not outstanding. This is a pretty good place to try out local dishes for a reasonable price. The staff was also very friendly. A very nice old restaurant with wood details and paintings. Very friendly personell.
The Patent That Launched A Fountain Pen Empire
Not the first time I try the meatballs, but you can never get enough of them. Highly recommended. We dined here for dinner on a Wednesday evening. Following the positive reviews about the place and the fact that they serve local Swedish dishes we decided to give it a go.
It was the reindeer that made me wanting to give this place a We made a reservation just to secure a table not knowing whether it was going to be busy or not. Upon arrival we were shown to our table, the restaurant was busy with almost every table occupied. The waiter that waited our table seemed frustrated for the entire evening, his foul mood made every interaction a chore.
And also it felt like we were rushed.Pelikan Holding AG is a German manufacturing company of writing, office and art equipment.
Credited with the invention of the differential-piston filling method, the original company was founded in Hanover in before it went bankrupt and restarted. Nowadays, Pelikan manufacture a wide range of products including writing implementsart materials and office goods. The roots of the company can be traced back towhen chemist Carl Hornemann founded a color and ink factory in HanoverGermany. The date of the first price list of the company — 28 April — is set up as the company's foundation date.
InGuenther Wagner obtained the position of chemist and plant manager. He took over the company in Wagner algo designed the company first logo taking the figure of a pelican from his own familiar coat of arms inbecoming also one of the first German trademarks ever.
The company expanded his range of distribution to AustriaItalyCzech RepublicHungary and Croatiathen establishing a new factory in Vienna. By the company had expanded its plant, employing 39 additional people.
When Fritz Beindorff took over the company, Pelikan added office products for copying, stamping, sticking and erasing. InPelikan started to produce India inkachieving great sales success. Bythe manufacturing were expanded, and workers were employed by Pelikan. InPelikan produced its first fountain pen. Pelikan expanded its products to watercolor sets in The writing instruments products were moved to Peine as the Hanover facilities could no longer be expanded.
InPelikan became a stock corporation, changing its legal form from a GmbH to an AGwith shares being divided within the Beindorff family and other 46 owners. Six years later, Pelikan was taken over by a Swiss company. The Hanover-based company was separated into various sub-companies and then sold. Two years later, Geha-Werke company merged with Pelikan, although operating as an independent division. In November Pelikan purchased rival stationery company Herlitzwhich had been previously bought by "Stationery Products S.
Herlitz's logistics supplied approx. The company had 1, employees, 1, of which were in Germany. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Pelican. For other uses, see Pelikan disambiguation. Retrieved 2 November Growth Business.Founded in Hanover inPelikan are one of the premier manufacturers of fountain pens and ink in Germany.
However, their enormous product range covers virtually the whole spectrum of writing instruments from the very simplest to what many consider to be the world's finest fountain pens.
We offer the widest range of Pelikan products available in the UK. Pelikan's website. Read more Less. Contact Us Login Register. Otherwise, check the standard types first - many pens use one of those. Special Offers Clearance. With the widest range of pens and pencils on the planet, Cult Pens are the experts on everything that makes a mark.
We pride ourselves on a high standard of customer serviceso feel free to contact us - we're happy to try our best to help with even the strangest of questions! Home Brands Pelikan. Pelikan Founded in Hanover inPelikan are one of the premier manufacturers of fountain pens and ink in Germany.
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