A neurological exam checks for disorders of the central nervous system. The central nervous system is made of your brainspinal cordand nerves from these areas. It controls and coordinates everything you do, including muscle movement, organ function, and even complex thinking and planning. There are more than types of central nervous system disorders. The most common disorders include:. A neurological exam is made up of a series of tests.
The tests examine your balance, muscle strength, and other functions of the central nervous system. A neurological exam is used to help find out if you have a disorder of the nervous system. Early diagnosis can help you get the right treatment and may decrease long-term complications.
You may need a neurological exam if you have symptoms of a nervous system disorder. Symptoms vary depending on the disorder, but common symptoms include:. A neurological exam is usually performed by a neurologist. A neurologist is a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the brain and spinal cord. During the exam, your neurologist will test different functions of the nervous system.
Most neurological exams include tests of the following:. If results on any part of the exam were not normal, your neurologist will probably order more tests to help make a diagnosis. These tests may include one or more of the following:. If you have questions about your results, talk to your neurologist or other health care provider. Nervous system disorders and mental health problems can have similar or the same symptoms.
That's because some behavioral symptoms can be signs of a nervous system disorder. If you had a mental health screening that was not normal, or if you notice changes in your behavior, your provider may recommend a neurological exam. The medical information provided is for informational purposes only, and is not to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
Please contact your health care provider with questions you may have regarding medical conditions or the interpretation of test results. Neurological Exam. What is a neurological exam? The most common disorders include: Parkinson's disease Multiple sclerosis Meningitis Epilepsy Stroke Migraine headaches A neurological exam is made up of a series of tests. Other names: neuro exam. What is it used for?
Why do I need a neurological exam? What happens during a neurological exam? Most neurological exams include tests of the following: Mental status. Your neurologist or other provider will ask you general questions, such as the date, place, and time.
You may also be asked to perform tasks. These may include remembering a list of items, naming objects, and drawing specific shapes. Coordination and balance.Speak now. Zing, bang, boom! Signals travel down the wires, they reach the brain, your fingers have touched something cold! How do we know this? It's not rocket science Anyone with a brain can process feelings in their nerves Are you that special something?
Can you answer these questions? Do you know your nervous system from your spinal column? Can you tell which nerve endings will feel hot, cold or sore? If you can, you may be the next big name in brain surgery out there!
But let's see Can you answer questions about REM-Cycles and lucid dreams? Well, then why don't you let the nerve signals rush to your finger as you select these quizzes? Sample Question. Reduced tone.
Increased tone. Diminished reflexes. Brisk reflexes. Positive Babinski's sign. Some cranial nerves are involved in the special senses such as seeing, hearing, and taste and others control muscles in the face or regulate glands.
Mytotatic reflax is a contraction in response to stretching within a muscle Zygomatic branch of the facial nerve. Maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. Ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. Buccal branch of the mandibular nerve. Buccal branch of the facial nerve. Hemisphericity- How I Learn Quiz. Thinking in words. Should You Become A Neurologist?
Do you think a career in neurology is right for you? Take this quiz to find out!Neurology Board Certification Practice Questions are prepared by high-performing high-performing physicians and faculty who are experts in their field. Questions are then reviewed by our editors with over 20 years of expertise in education and item writing. Our practice questions are mapped to the ABPN Neurology blueprint so the question categories and volume of question types align to what you will experience on test day.
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Neurology Shelf Exam Sample Questions
Average increase in percentile when you complete a Smartbank. Average score improvement for completing a SmartBank. Neurology certification smartbank. Free Trial - 5 Days. Subscription Options. View All. Neurological Disorders and Topics.
Physician Competencies and Mechanisms. Try Free Questions now. Proven Outcomes. Create Custom Quizzes. Realistic Testing Interface. Rich Answer Explanations. Mobile Access. ABPN Board-style Neurology questions provide realistic scenarios where a series of questions tests both your understanding of the material and application of knowledge. Realistic testing interfaces help reduce anxiety on test day. You will know what to expect and be able to focus on the questions.It is a progressive neurological disease that produces a decline in cognitive function and memory and changes in behavior.
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In addition to the above-mentioned features of AD, there is a loss of connections between the neurons involved with learning and memory.
Aphasia results from damage to the portion of the brain involved in creating and interpreting language. Aphasia is not a disease. It is a symptom of a neurological disorder or injury, such as stroke, brain tumor, or head injury. Expressive aphasia is the term for problems communicating using spoken or written language.UBC Medicine Neurology Clinical Skills - Motor, Sensory, and Reflex Examination
Receptive aphasia refers to problems understanding language. It results from damage or trauma to facial nerves. Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by compression of the median nerve in the wrist. As the disorder progresses, there is a loss of grip strength and manual dexterity may decrease. Resting the affected wrist, immobilization, ice packs, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents may provide relief by reducing swelling and pressure on the median nerve.
Guillain-Barre Syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease that often follows a respiratory or gastrointestinal viral illness.
It also may occur following surgery or immunization. There is no cure for Guillain-Barre Syndrome; however, treatment, including plasmapheresis and high-dose immunoglobulin therapy administered intravenously, aims to reduce the severity of symptoms. Herpes zoster, commonly known as shingles, occurs along a dermatome and produces characteristic itching, burning, blisters, and pain.
It is caused by a reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus that causes chickenpox. The severity and duration of an outbreak can be reduced by prompt treatment with antiviral agents. Older adults who have had chickenpox may be given a varicella-zoster virus vaccine to significantly reduce the risk of developing shingles. The diagnosis of epilepsy may be established using the above-mentioned tests as well as continuous video EEG monitoring, magnetic resonance imaging MRI and functional MRI, and single photon emission computed tomography SPECTwhich traces cerebral blood flow to detect abnormalities during and between seizures.
Because people with epilepsy, especially children and adolescents, may develop behavioral or emotional difficulties in response to stigmatization, cognitive behavioral therapy may be considered as adjunctive therapy. It is not, however, a treatment for the seizure disorder, which for the majority of affected persons is controllable with the use of antiepileptic drugs.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease affects an estimated 1 in 2, persons in the United States. It is a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy that affects the peripheral nerves. As such, symptoms include weakness of the feet and legs and foot deformities resulting from weak muscles, which in turn may produce foot drop, tripping, and falls. Dravet syndrome, also known as severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, presents with frequent fever-related seizures during the first year of life.
Other types of seizures generally occur over time, and children with Dravet syndrome are often developmentally delayed in language, motor, and interpersonal skills. Persons with Fabry disease cannot efficiently metabolize lipids and as a result, excessive lipid deposition occurs in the eyes, kidneys, cardiovascular system, and autonomic nervous system.By Barry Schoenborn, Richard Snyder.
An MRI showed hemorrhagic changes and increased enhancement in the temporal lobe. Which one of the following does she need at this point? Which one of the following would be used in treating a peripheral neuropathy secondary to heavy metal toxicity? Which of the following could be seen with the chronic use of phenytoin Dilantin? Use this answer key to score the practice neurology questions. The answer explanations give you some insight into why the correct answer is better than the other choices.
This person has symptoms consistent with a migraine headache and the visual disturbances described are likely scotomas and an aura. Choice Eergotamine and caffeine, is used in treating an acute migraine. Choice Aoxygen, is one treatment for cluster headaches. Choice Bcyclobenzaprine, is a muscle relaxer used for treating tension headaches. Choice Clisinopril, is used first-line to treat hypertension as well as proteinuria and albuminuria secondary to diabetes.
Choice Dterazosin, is used for hypertension as well as for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Choice Ccomplex regional pain syndrome, is associated with pain, usually in an extremity with bone changes and usually after a significant trauma. Look at the question setup: The patient is immunosuppressed, presents with a fever, and has had a change in mental status. You see the characteristic finding in hemorrhage of the temporal lobe. Choice Amethylprednisolone, is given for a multiple sclerosis exacerbation.
Choice Cazithromycin, is one of the treatments for community-acquired pneumonia, and Choice Eamoxicillin, is used for treating otitis media or bacterial sinusitis. Heavy metal toxicity can present with a peripheral neuropathy.
Choice Celectromyography EMGis used to evaluate and diagnose a peripheral neuropathy. Vitamin B 12 supplementation, Choice Ehelps only with B 12 deficiency. Phenytoin Dilantin is associated with low vitamin D levels because the drug increases the metabolism of the liver and can deplete the vitamin D levels quickly. This can lead to osteoporosis. Choice Aleukocytosis, is associated with lithium. You can see Choice Bincreased liver function levels, with valproic acid Depakote. You can see Choice Chyponatremia, with carbamazepine Tegretol.
Rich Snyder, DO, is board certified in both internal medicine and nephrology. He teaches, lectures, and works with PA students, medical students, and medical residents.A year-old man with a history of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, presents with left hemiparesis without speech problems.
The symptoms resolve while you evaluate the patient. Which of the following is correct? Explanation: This patient had a TIA, which is a brief episode of focal neurologic dysfunction caused by ischemia without cerebral infarction. Therefore, patients presenting with TIAs should be urgently assessed, with a detailed analysis of their risk factors for stroke. Work up should be obtained to evaluate the vascular origin of the symptoms, to exclude alternative nonischemic causes, and to assess prognostic factors.
The current proposed definition of TIA is based on lack of tissue damage and the absence of infarcted tissue. Brain imaging with MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging DWI is helpful in detecting the presence of infarcted tissue, even in the absence of persistent symptoms. Guidelines recommend the following: Neuroimaging within 24 hours, preferably an MRI with DWI Noninvasive vascular imaging of the extracranial arteries Noninvasive imaging of the intracranial vasculature if it is considered that this will alter management Patients should be evaluated as soon as possible Given that in the acute presentation a TIA when symptoms are still present is indistinguishable from an acute stroke, all patients presenting with acute neurologic symptoms should be assessed similarly and considered candidates for intravenous tPA until proven contraindication is determined.
No period of observation should be allowed in this setting since on acute presentation these two spectrums of the disease cannot be differentiated. Definition and evaluation of transient ischemic attack.
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Practice Neurology Questions on the Physician Assistant Exam
Question 1 Results. Question 1 of 6. Neurology Shelf Exam Sample Question 1 A year-old man with a history of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, presents with left hemiparesis without speech problems. A The patient should be discharged and no further testing is necessary B The patient can be discharged with follow up in 3 months and treatment change is not necessary C Observation before thrombolysis is indicated prior to symptom resolution, to determine if the patient has a TIA rather than a stroke D MRI is not required since the symptoms have resolved E The risk of stroke is highest in the period immediately following and soon after a TIA The correct answer is E.
The risk of stroke is highest in the period immediately following and soon after a TIA Explanation: This patient had a TIA, which is a brief episode of focal neurologic dysfunction caused by ischemia without cerebral infarction. No period of observation should be allowed in this setting since on acute presentation these two spectrums of the disease cannot be differentiated Reference: Easton JD, Saver JL, Albers GW, et al.
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