Burmese alphabet

It is ultimately a Brahmic script adapted from either the Kadamba or Pallava alphabet of South India and more immediately an adaptation of Old Mon or Pyu script. The Burmese alphabet is also used for the liturgical languages of Pali and Sanskrit.

In recent decades, other, related alphabets, such as Shan and modern Mon, have been restructured according to the standard of the now-dominant Burmese alphabet. See Burmese script. Burmese is written from left to right and requires no spaces between words, although modern writing usually contains spaces after each clause to enhance readability. The earliest evidence of the Burmese alphabet merge two json objects typescript dated towhile a casting made in the 18th century of an old stone inscription points to There are several systems of transliteration into the Latin alphabet; for this article, the MLC Transcription System is used.

The Burmese alphabet is an adaptation of the Old Mon script [3] or the Pyu script[1] and it is ultimately of South Indian origin, from either the Kadamba [1] or Pallava alphabet. Within each group, the first letter is tenuis "plain"the second is the aspirated homologuethe third and fourth are the voiced homologues and the fifth is the nasal homologue.

A letter is a consonant or consonant cluster that occurs before the vowel of a syllable. The Burmese script has 33 letters to indicate the initial consonant of a syllable and four diacritics to indicate additional consonants in the onset.

Like other abugidasincluding the other members of the Brahmic familyvowels are indicated in Burmese script by diacritics, which are placed above, below, before or after the consonant character. The following table provides the letter, the syllable onset in IPA and the way the letter is referred to in Burmese, which may be either a descriptive name or just the sound of the letter, arranged in the traditional order:.

Consonant letters may be modified by one or more medial diacritics three at mostindicating an additional consonant before the vowel. These diacritics are:. The Burmese alphabet is written with specific stroke order. The Burmese script is based on circles. Usually, one circle should be done with one stroke, and all circles are written clockwise.

Exceptions are mostly letters with an opening on top. The circle of these letters is written with two strokes coming from opposite directions. Some versions of stroke order may be slightly different. Syllable rhymes i.The Burmese alphabet consists of 33 letters and 12 vowels, and is written from left to right.

It requires no spaces between words, although modern writing usually contains spaces after each clause to enhance readability. Characterized by its circular letters and diacritics, the script is an abugida, with all letters having an inherent vowel. The consonants are arranged into six consonant groups based on articulation, like other Brahmi scripts. Tone markings and vowel modifications are written as diacritics placed to the left, right, top, and bottom of letters. The development of the script followed that of the Burmese language translationwhich is generally divided into Old Burmese, Middle Burmese and modern Burmese.

Old Burmese dates from the 11th to the 16th century Pagan and Ava dynasties ; Middle Burmese from the 16th to the 18th century Toungoo to early Konbaung dynasties ; modern Burmese from the midth century to the present. Orthographic changes followed shifts in phonology rather than transformations in Burmese grammatical structure and phonology, which has not changed much from Old Burmese language to modern Burmese.

Written Burmese dates to the early Pagan period. The script was developed from either the Mon script in or the Pyu script in the 10th century. Burmese orthography originally followed a square format but the cursive format took hold from the 17th century when popular writing led to the wider use of palm leaves and folded paper known as parabaiks.

Much of the orthography in written Burmese today can be traced back to Middle Burmese. Standardized tone marking was not achieved until the 18th century. From the 19th century onward, orthographers created spellers to reform Burmese spelling, because ambiguities arose over spelling sounds that had been merged. During colonial rule under the British, Burmese spelling was standardized through dictionaries and spellers.

The latest spelling authority, named the Myanma Salonpaung Thatpon Kyan, was compiled in at the request of the Burmese government. Read Also: Burmese Language Services. Please enter your personal details and we will contact you shortly. Burmese Alphabet The Burmese alphabet consists of 33 letters and 12 vowels, and is written from left to right.

Need a translation service? Words translated by CCJK, Get Free Quote. All rights reserved.From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Subcategories This category has the following 10 subcategories, out of 10 total. Media in category "Burmese script" The following files are in this category, out of total. Burm ABC. Burmese word for eight. Burmese-Mae Sai. Complex Text Rendering - Burmese. Das Buch der Schrift Faulmann Graphie bando.

Graphie lethwei. Hkia 1. Hlya 2. I initial. Interior of a building on Mandalay hill 2. Interior of a building on Mandalay hill. Jackol licence creatve commons. Judson Grammatical Notices Kai 2. KaN 1b. KaN 2b. KaN 3c. Kaon 1. KeiN 1. KeiN 1b.Burmese, myanma bhasabelongs to the Lolo-Burmese sub-branch of the Tibeto-Burmese branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. It is spoken by the majority of the population in Myanmar formerly Burma. It is also spoken in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Thailand, and the U.

The total Burmese-speaking population of the world is estimated at slightly above 32 million people Ethnologue. Throughout history, Burmese has been in contact with speakers of other languages such as Pali and Monthe earliest groups to occupy Burma in the 12thth centuries, and later with European languages such as PortugueseDutchEnglish and French in the 16thth centuries. These languages have all influenced the spoken, but not on the written form of Burmese.

burmese alphabet

As a result, modern colloquial Burmese used in everyday conversations differs significantly from the formal written form of the language used in textbooks, formal writing, newspapers, fiction, and expository prose. The written language retains many Pali words and syntactic structures no longer found in the spoken language. Burmese is the official language of Myanmar sincethe name for Burma where it is spoken by 32 million people. It is used in the media, government administration, and all levels of education.

The use of minority languages is suppressed by the authoritarian regime. It is spoken in most of the country with slight regional variations. In addition, there are other regional variants that differ from standard Burmese in pronunciation and vocabulary.

All dialects are mutually intelligible. Standard Burmese is based on the dialect spoken in in the lower valleys of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin rivers.

There are two registers: a formal and a colloquial one. The formal register is used in official publications, radio and TV broadcasts, literary works, and formal speech. The colloquial register is used in daily communications. Like all Sino-Tibetan languages, Burmese has a simple syllable structure consisting of an initial consonant followed by a vowel with an associated tone.

There are no final consonants. Burmese has eight vowel phonemes, i. Burmese has a fairly complex system of consonants, as presented in the table below. Consonants in parentheses are extremely rare or used only in loanwords.

There is a three-way contrast between plain unaspiratedaspiratedand voiced consonants, e. There is also a two-way contrast between voiced and voiceless nasals and lateral approximantse.

Burmese is a tonal language. This means that all syllables have prosodic features that are an integral part of their pronunciation and that affect word meaning. Prosodic contrasts involve not only pitchbut also phonationintensity loudnessduration, and vowel quality. According to one analysis, Burmese has 4 tones examples below are taken from Wikipedia :. Burmese is an analytic language which means that grammatical functions are expressed by word order and by postpositional particles rather than by inflections as is the case in Indo-European languages.

Particles include subject markers, equivalents of prepositions, and classifiers, i. Particles can also have discourse functions, for example, to indicate the topic of a sentence. There are various politeness markers. They play an extremely important role in the language. The normal word order in Burmese is Subject-Object-Verb.

The verb and its modifiers occupy a final position in a sentence, while all other elements are ordered somewhat freely before it.Color Codes: nounspronounsverbsadverbsadjectivesconjunctionsparticlespostpositional markersinterjections. File: myanmar-script-learning-guide-audio. Learning to read and pronounce Burmese script is the first step towards understanding the meaning behind the written words, and a necessary step towards competency in writing or typing in Burmese.

In this lesson, I will introduce you to the characters and a system of pronunciation designed to help you to read Myanmar written words in the shortest possible time. If you are the first time learner who has never seen the Myanmar written words, my recommendation is to start with the recognition of characters and know the basic rules and general spelling patterns rather than memorizing everything.

burmese alphabet

In this stage, you may not remember how all the characters and symbols are pronounced when put together, but you should be able to refer back to the reference guide, and at least be able to get the close pronunciation.

My guess is that will be sufficient for most tourists and visitors who need to find out the pronunciation of just a word or two out of curiosity or necessity. It should be noted that pronunciations of some words do not necessarily follow the way they are spelled. Historical evidence suggests that Myanmar Script has existed at least as far back as 11th Century Bagan Civilization.

Pyu script, just like Mon Script, is derived from the original Brahmi script of ancient India shown in the left column of the table. To give a sense of timeline in history, Ancient Pyu script was in use as far back as AD. In comparison, Old English based on Latin script was introduced to the Anglo-Saxon people of England in the 7th century, and Modern English began in the late 15th century.

The works of William Shakespeare dated back to the early 17th century. Nagari is said to be the old term for Devanagariwhich itself is the Brahmic family of scriptsso most researchers today will agree with Dr.

With the rise of "Bamar" people, Burmese script became the dominant script replacing Mon and Pyu in the land of what is known as Myanmar today. By the 18th century with the advent of printing, the shapes of all the 33 main characters had become almost identical to the present day characters. It is said to contain 60, Burmese typographic characters.

The sample below shows the printed Burmese Script from this dictionary. Although some of the spellings have changed since then, the characters have the same shapes as the present day computer fonts. Today, just about anyone with a computer using Burmese font can print in Burmese. There are some slight variations among different font types and some deviations in ratios of the shapes can be seen.

The spelling of Burmese words are standardized today by the Myanmar Language Commission. You need browser version of at least IE 9. I was impressed with Thanlwin font and Ekaya Input Method which is not only Unicode compliant but also rendered difficult-to-spell double-stacked words and Buddhist texts correctly, so I have switched to Thanlwin from an another font type. In earlier days, users need to have the font downloaded first into their computers, and in addition, browser options must be changed.

Fortunately, the technology has much improved plus freely available for download or learn online. Burmese Script is the later addition to the original lessons.

I now have Burmese Script versions of the previous lessons for serious learners of the Burmese language. If you have already pre-installed some other Burmese fonts that are not Unicode-compliant, you may see incorrect display of Unicode-compliant fonts such as the one used in this website.

Learn Burmese

You have the options of changing your default font in your browser setting, or un-install other fonts, or use an another machine without the Burmese font in it. You do not need to install any font to view this website, as the font will be automatically loaded. If your Internet connection is slow, make sure first that the page has completed loading the fonts. To quote Wikipedia under the sub-heading "Why not Zawgyi":.

If the font display in brown color matches the image below in blue color, the font is working correctly. Those are comparable to 26 alphabets in English, but without uppercase and lowercase differentiation.It is ultimately a Brahmic script adapted from either the Kadamba or Pallava alphabet of South India and more immediately an adaptation of Old Mon or Pyu script.

The Burmese alphabet is also used for the liturgical languages of Pali and Sanskrit. In recent decades, other, related alphabets, such as Shan and modern Mon, have been restructured according to the standard of the now-dominant Burmese alphabet. See Burmese script. Burmese is written from left to right and requires no spaces between words, although modern writing usually contains spaces after each clause to enhance readability. The earliest evidence of the Burmese alphabet is dated towhile a casting made in the 18th century of an old stone inscription points to There are several systems of transliteration into the Latin alphabet; for this article, the MLC Transcription System is used.

The Burmese alphabet is an adaptation of the Old Mon script [3] or the Pyu script[1] and it is ultimately of South Indian origin, from either the Kadamba [1] or Pallava alphabet. Within each group, the first letter is tenuis "plain"the second is the aspirated homologuethe third and fourth are the voiced homologues and the fifth is the nasal homologue. A letter is a consonant or consonant cluster that occurs before the vowel of a syllable.

The Burmese script has 33 letters to indicate the initial consonant of a syllable and four diacritics to indicate additional consonants in the onset.

Like other abugidasincluding the other members of the Brahmic familyvowels are indicated in Burmese script by diacritics, which are placed above, below, before or after the consonant character. The following table provides the letter, the syllable onset in IPA and the way the letter is referred to in Burmese, which may be either a descriptive name or just the sound of the letter, arranged in the traditional order:. Consonant letters may be modified by one or more medial diacritics three at mostindicating an additional consonant before the vowel.

These diacritics are:.

Burmese language

The Burmese alphabet is written with specific stroke order. The Burmese script is based on circles. Usually, one circle should be done with one stroke, and all circles are written clockwise. Exceptions are mostly letters with an opening on top. The circle of these letters is written with two strokes coming from opposite directions.

Some versions of stroke order may be slightly different. Syllable rhymes i. One or more of these accents can be added to a consonant to change its sound. In addition, other modifying symbols are used to differentiate tone and sound, but are not considered diacritics.

The standard tone markings found in modern Burmese can be traced to the 19th century. Certain sequences of consonants are written one atop the other, or stacked. Consonants not found in a row beginning with k, c, t, or p can only be doubled — that is, stacked with themselves.

When stacked, the first consonant the final of the preceding syllable, in this case m is written as usual, while the second consonant the onset of the following syllable, in this case bh is subscripted beneath it.

Stacked consonants are mostly confined to loan words from languages like Pali, Sanskrit, and occasionally English. They are not found in native Burmese words except for the purpose of abbreviation. A decimal numbering system is used, and numbers are written in the same order as Hindu-Arabic numerals. Separators, such as commas, are not used to group numbers. Other abbreviations used in literary Burmese are:. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.

Home FAQ Contact. Burmese Type Abugida. Unicode range. Main article: Burmese numerals.Home News Alphabets Phrases Search.

It is spoken mainly in Myanmar Burmawhere it is the official language. In there were about 33 million people who spoke Burmese as a first language. There are also thought to be another 10 million who speak it as a second language. Standard Burmese is spoken in the Irrawaddy River valley. Within that area there are minor differences in vocabulary and pronunciation between the Mandalay dialect of Upper Burma and the Yangon dialect of Lower Burma.

Burmese dialects in other parts of Burma differ more from the standard, but they are all more or less mutually intelligible. There are two registers of Burmese: high and low.

Burmese alphabet

The high register is used in formal literature, newspapers, radio and formal speeches. The low register is used in television, comics, informal literature, and everyday conversation. Since the s some Burmese writers have promoted the use of the low register, and have suggest the abandoning of the high register.

burmese alphabet

The Burmese or Myanmar script developed from the Mon script, which was adapted from a southern Indian script during the 8th century. The earliest known inscriptions in the Burmese script date from the 11th century. Hear a recording of this text by Lynnie T. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. If you need to type in many different languages, the Q International Keyboard can help. It enables you to type almost any language that uses the Latin, Cyrillic or Greek alphabets, and is free. If you like this site and find it useful, you can support it by making a donation via PayPal or Patreonor by contributing in other ways. Omniglot is how I make my living. Note : all links on this site to Amazon.

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